What Is Dermatology?
The skin is the largest, but the most delicate and fragile human organ. Like the heart, lungs, or liver, the skin has vital functions that influence the person’s state and health in general.
The skin actively reacts to any chemical and physical agents, and its diseases can be noticed almost immediately because the problem is plain to see. This is a kind of advantage since people can diagnose the disease early and start the treatment. The downside of skin problems is aesthetic defects and the associated emotional distress. This is especially true for chronic skin conditions since their exacerbations are difficult to manage in a short time. Therefore, the diagnosis and treatment of skin problems in a short time is the overriding priority of a skilled professional. Dermatology is concerned with a close study of skin diseases, their causes, symptoms, and treatment methods. A doctor who deals with skin, hair, nail, sweat, and sebaceous gland disorders, is called a dermatologist.
Dermatology is closely intertwined with venereology, endocrinology, oncology, allergology, gastroenterology, and many other branches of medicine. After all, most diseases somehow affect the human skin. For example, allergy causes skin rashes and itching, and melanoma is a malignant skin tumor. Some skin diseases can eventually become systemic. For example, psoriasis causes arthritis, inflammation of the joints, in 20% of cases.
You should never underestimate dermal lesions. The lesion size does not matter: you should consult a specialist and have an accurate diagnosis. For example, melanoma is often detected at advanced stages, when the person has widespread metastases. People simply neglect their skin or ignore small changes.
There is a relationship between the incidence of certain diseases of the skin and its derivatives (hair and nails) and stressful situations. For example, emotional stress often leads to exacerbations of dermatitis or pimples. A competent foreign dermatologist refers such patients to a psychotherapist, neurologist, and other specialists who will help find out the root cause of all the problems and eliminate it.
Dermatology oncology is a large and promising division. Its main tasks are considered to be the following:
- treatment and prevention of benign and malignant skin neoplasms;
- observation of moles and precancerous conditions.
The Most Common Diseases
Everybody has experienced some skin problems. They could be common teenage acne, comedones, or chronic skin diseases. In most cases, people do not seek medical help immediately, spending precious time on self-medication and waiting for everything to pass by itself. This does not work as often as we would like it to.
The most common skin disorders are:
- fungal foot and nail infections;
- pimples and acne;
- atopic dermatitis;
- rashes caused by allergy;
People also visit a dermatologist to remove an unwanted mole or have a preventive examination.
You should consult a dermatologist if your skin features:
- rashes of any nature and location;
- a changed color;
- peeling and itching;
- hyperhidrosis or excessive dryness.
Skin Diseases Treatment Methods
Foreign clinics are glad to offer skin surgery to patients from any country. Before starting any operation, dermatologists, plastic surgeons, and other specialized doctors inspect and interview the patient and conduct the necessary examinations; only after that, the surgery is scheduled, and its scope and technique are chosen.
In the case of skin diseases, most operations are performed on outpatients though sometimes the patient may still be hospitalized and observed by specialists. Topical anesthetics are enough to anesthetize the patient.
When removing nevi and other skin masses, doctors send tissue samples for histological testing: this is necessary to learn the cellular composition of the lesion. In the case of malignant neoplasms, it is important to find out whether the tumor has been removed completely. Malignant skin tumor surgery involves the removal of some healthy skin: this is essential for cancer recurrence prevention.
If possible, dermatologists and surgeons try to opt for minimally invasive surgery, particularly with regard to open areas of the skin, face, and neck. Small incisions heal quickly, and rough scar tissue is less likely to cover the site.
If a person has hypertrophic scars (keloids) or ugly scars, the surgeon can perform cosmetic surgery. Its result is a neater scar, which will be almost unnoticeable for the patient and other people.
If a significant layer of skin was removed during surgery or diagnostic biopsy, then the defect may need to be covered through skin grafting and transplantation.
For varicose veins, dermatology and cosmetology offer various cures: small veins can be obliterated; some vessels can be removed. Minimally invasive surgery is the first choice.
Benign neoplasms can be easily removed through surgery. Foreign surgeons use modern equipment to make small incisions, which leave barely noticeable scars. Malignant neoplasms are removed so that to minimize the risk of relapses. The patient is always observed by doctors, who are to eliminate all possible complications in time and notice early signs of tumor recurrence.
Skillful care should be taken of the skin and sutures in order for the surgery result to please the doctor and patient. Paramedical personnel takes care of the patient, and the doctor sees to it that all prescriptions are observed. In the first 1–2 weeks, the patient should avoid vigorous exercise and sunbathe. To accelerate tissue healing, one can use special creams. Smoking disrupts the process of tissue regeneration, so it is advisable to abandon this unhealthy habit.
To treat skin diseases, foreign specialists use all effective and safe methods that are known to science. They focus on non-invasive techniques so that not to cause extra irritation and injuries. The specialist also gives recommendations on care for the affected skin to prevent the disease progression.
For therapeutic purposes, they can prescribe injections, tablets, lotions, creams, ointments, and many other drug formulations. Some patients are also prescribed special bath therapy, light therapy, cryotherapy, and laser treatment. Many years of experience enable specialists of large centers in Israel, Germany, and other developed countries to achieve quick results of skin treatment, restoring its beautiful appearance and the patient’s psychological comfort.
The main goals of rehabilitation in dermatology are:
- improving the visual appearance;
- reducing the mass of scar tissue;
- repairing skin damage and restoring all skin functions;
- controlling the patient’s emotional distress caused by their own appearance;
- social adaptation of the patient.
Rehabilitation is required after surgery, during which the skin was damaged extensively. The rehabilitation therapy promotes rapid tissue healing and reduces the risks of postoperative complications.